Glossary of Terms

Abba: Affectionate term for Father

Achichem: Brother

Achot: Sister

Av: July/August

Bat-doda: Female cousin

Binah: God’s idea of spiritual perfection

Dod: Uncle

Doda: Aunt

Erusin: Betrothal period

Goy/Goyem: Non-Jew, Gentile

Heshvan: October/November

Imma: Affectionate term for Mother 

Ishah: Wife

Iyar: April/May

Iyshah: Husband

Ketubah: A document detailing the husband’s obligations to his wife

Kiddush: Wine

Kislev: November/December

Mashiac: Messiah

Malakh: Angel

Nechadni: Niece

Nekhed: Grandchild

Nisan: March/April

Nissuin: Marriage ceremony

Savta: Grandmother

Sivan: May/June

Tammuz: June/July

Tevet: December/January


The custom of substituting the word “God” with “G-d” in English is based on the traditional practice in Jewish law of giving God’s Hebrew Name a high degree of respect and reverence. When written or printed, God’s Hebrew Name (and many of the stand-in Names used to refer to God) cannot be erased or destroyed. And while there was no prohibition against pronouncing God’s Name in ancient times, the name “Adonai” or “Ha-Shem” (literally The Name) was often used instead.